To add to the mix, look at what is actually going on:
1. obstructive is when you are exerting an effort to breathe, but not succeeding-your airway is physically blocked-someplace
2. Central is when, timing wise you should be taking a breath, but you are not even trying to breathe, zero effort to breathe.
So what can make your brain not even try to breathe? Damage to the brain stem-yes. something that makes you "catch" your breath-yes. taking a breath and holding it while you toss and turn-sleep/wake junk. Some people catch their breath when air is puffed into their face, or when the pressure changes-same thing. Anything that interrupts or disturbs the natural rhythm of your breathing.
Pressure changes, exhaling into pressure, moving, and of course your breathing is triggered by your CO2/O2 levels, if your brain stem thinks they are fine, it will not trigger a breath. Breathing has two purposes, maintaining proper O2 levels and making sure that CO2 does not build up in your system.
A central can be caused by many things and several things.
Building on PoolQ's answer: ASV machines treat real central apneas by using enough pressure to pretty much force you to breathe in. BiPAP, in its many various names, does not treat CA. It is for people who need higher pressures or a higher level of pressure relief on exhalation. But exhalation pressure relief can lead you to exhale more fully than you normally would which reduces the CO2 in your body and that results in your body not triggering a breath. At least I think that is how exhalation relief can cause CA.