RE: Full face and pillow masks -> different pressure and AHI count...
Hi - These journal abstracts suggest that higher pressures are needed with a full face mask:
Sleep Med. 2014 Jun;15(6):619-24. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.011. Epub 2014 Feb 8.
A randomised controlled trial on the effect of mask choice on residual respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure treatment.
Ebben MR1, Narizhnaya M2, Segal AZ3, Barone D4, Krieger AC5.
It has been found that mask style can affect the amount of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) required to reduce an apnoea/hyponoea index (AHI) to < 5/h on a titration study. However, it was not previously known whether switching from one CPAP mask style to another post titration could affect the residual AHI with CPAP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in residual AHI with CPAP treatment between oronasal and nasal masks.
Twenty-one subjects (age mean (M)=62.9, body mass index (BMI) M=29.6 kg/m2) were randomised (14 subjects completed the protocol) to undergo an in-laboratory CPAP titration with either a nasal mask or an oronasal mask. Subjects were then assigned this mask for 3weeks of at-home CPAP use with the optimal treatment pressure determined on the laboratory study (CPAP M=8.4 cm of H2O). At the end of this 3-week period, data were collected from the CPAP machine and the subject was given the other mask to use with the same CPAP settings for the next 3weeks at home (if the nasal mask was given initially, the oronasal one was given later and vice versa). On completion of the second 3-week period, data on residual AHI were again collected and compared with the first 3-week period on CPAP.
A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (two-tailed) revealed that residual AHI with CPAP treatment was significantly higher with the oronasal compared with the nasal mask (z = -3.296, p<0.001). All 14 subjects had a higher residual AHI with the oronasal versus nasal mask, and 50% of the subjects had a residual AHI >10/h in the oronasal mask condition, even though all of these subjects were titrated to an AHI of < 5/h in the laboratory.
A higher residual AHI was seen in all patients with the use of an oronasal mask compared with a nasal mask. Switching to an oronasal mask post titration results in an increase in residual AHI with CPAP treatment, and pressure adjustment may be warranted.
Crit Care. 2013 Dec 23;17(6):R300. doi: 10.1186/cc13169.
Continuous positive airway pressure and ventilation are more effective with a nasal mask than a full face mask in unconscious subjects: a randomized controlled trial.
Oto J, Li Q, Kimball WR, Wang J, Sabouri AS, Harrell PG, Kacmarek RM, Jiang Y.
Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a major problem in unconscious subjects, making full face mask ventilation difficult. The mechanism of UAO in unconscious subjects shares many similarities with that of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially the hypotonic upper airway seen during rapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via nasal mask is more effective at maintaining airway patency than a full face mask in patients with OSA. We hypothesized that CPAP via nasal mask and ventilation (nCPAP) would be more effective than full face mask CPAP and ventilation (FmCPAP) for unconscious subjects, and we tested our hypothesis during induction of general anesthesia for elective surgery.
In total, 73 adult subjects requiring general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of four groups: nCPAP P0, nCPAP P5, FmCPAP P0, and FmCPAP P5, where P0 and P5 represent positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 0 and 5 cm H2O applied prior to induction. After apnea, ventilation was initiated with pressure control ventilation at a peak inspiratory pressure over PEEP (PIP/PEEP) of 20/0, then 20/5, and finally 20/10 cm H2O, each applied for 1 min. At each pressure setting, expired tidal volume (Vte) was calculated by using a plethysmograph device.
The rate of effective tidal volume (Vte > estimated anatomical dead space) was higher (87.9% vs. 21.9%; P<0.01) and the median Vte was larger (6.9 vs. 0 mL/kg; P<0.01) with nCPAP than with FmCPAP. Application of CPAP prior to induction of general anesthesia did not affect Vte in either approach (nCPAP pre- vs. post-; 7.9 vs. 5.8 mL/kg, P = 0.07) (FmCPAP pre- vs. post-; 0 vs. 0 mL/kg, P = 0.11).
nCPAP produced more effective tidal volume than FmCPAP in unconscious subjects.
Sleep Med. 2012 Jun;13(6):645-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2012.02.004. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
The efficacy of three different mask styles on a PAP titration night.
Ebben MR1, Oyegbile T, Pollak CP.
This study compared the efficacy of three different masks, nasal pillows, nasal masks and full face (oronasal) masks, during a single night of titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
Fifty five subjects that included men (n=33) and women (n=22) were randomly assigned to one of three masks and underwent a routine titration with incremental CPAP applied through the different masks.
CPAP applied through the nasal pillows and nasal mask was equally effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. However, CPAP applied through the oronasal mask required a significantly higher pressure compared to nasal masks to treat moderately severe (2.8 cm of H(2)O ± 2.1 SD) and severe (6.0 cm of H(2)O ± 3.2 SD) obstructive sleep apnea.
CPAP applied with either nasal mask was effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. The oronasal mask required significantly higher pressures in subjects with moderate to severe disease. Therefore, when changing from a nasal to an oronasal mask, a repeat titration is required to ensure effective treatment of sleep apnea, especially in patients with moderate to severe disease.