Glossary A B C E F H I L M N O P R S T U V
AAV (Anti-Asphyxia Valve)
The AAV is a safety feature in all ResMed full face masks. If the therapy device stops delivering air for any reason (e.g. in a power failure), the AAV allows you to breathe in fresh air from the room rather than re-breathe exhaled air built up in your mask.
AHI (Apnea–Hypopnea Index)
Measured during a sleep study, AHI refers to the number of apneas and hypopneas you have per hour. See also: Apnea; Hypopnea.
APAP (Automatic Positive Airway Pressure)
While CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy delivers air at one fixed pressure, APAP is a type of therapy delivery that automatically changes throughout the night (based on your needs) to deliver only the minimum pressure you need at any given time. This means that the device only increases the pressure as you need it. ResMed’s APAP therapy is delivered in our AutoSet™ range of devices. See also: CPAP; AutoSet
"Apnea" literally means no breath or stopping breathing for 10 seconds or longer during sleep. See also: Sleep apnea; Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); Central sleep apnea (OSA); Mixed apnea.
ASV (Adaptive Servo-Ventilation)
ASV is a type of PAP therapy that treats a range of central breathing disorders, including periodic breathing, such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). Central breathing disorders occur when your body’s automatic act of breathing has stopped even though your airway is open. See also: Apnea; Central sleep apnea; Periodic breathing; Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR)
AutoSet is the name of ResMed’s APAP technology, which adjusts the therapy pressure delivered to you as your needs change—hourly, nightly and from season to season—to deliver the ideal, lowest therapy pressure. As a result, AutoSet is clinically proven to increase comfort and compliance.
While CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy delivers air at one fixed pressure, bilevel therapy delivers two different levels of pressure: • a higher level of pressure when you breathe in; and • a lower level of pressure when you breathe out. This makes it a little easier to breathe out against the air pressure. ResMed’s bilevel therapy is delivered in our VPAP range of devices. See also: VPAP; CPAP
BMI (Body Mass Index)
Using your height and weight, your BMI is calculated to assess if you are at your ideal weight, or over or underweight, for your gender and height.
Chest wall disorder
A chest wall disorder is one that affects the connection between the muscles and bones around the rib cage and the respiratory system (that is, the organs in your body that help you to breathe).
This is the name of ResMed’s humidification technology. Climate Control is a comfortable humidification system that delivers rainout protection without compromising on humidity delivery. By using a ClimateLine™ heated tube with your Climate Control system, you can also keep the air in the tube warm throughout the night. Humidity and temperature are maintained, even as ambient conditions change. To activate Climate Control you need an S9 therapy device, an H5i Heated Humidifier and a ClimateLine™ heated tube. See also: Humidification; Rainout
During normal breathing, you breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon-dioxide (or CO2). But when you are wearing a therapy mask, some of the CO2 can remain in the mask, so all masks need to have a feature that ‘washes out’ CO2 remaining in the mask to prevent you from re-breathing too much of it.
CompSA (Complex sleep apnea)
Complex sleep apnea is a form of sleep apnea where central apneas persist (or emerge) during attempts to treat obstructive apneas with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) or bilevel therapy. See also: Apnea; Obstructive sleep apnea; CPAP; Bilevel
Refers to noise that is created from therapy equipment – it’s the noise you might feel in the tube. See also: Radiated noise
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
COPD is a lung disease that develops over time, mainly caused by cigarette smoking, air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust.
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)
CPAP is a type of therapy that delivers pressurized air at one fixed pressure throughout the night to keep your airway open so that you don’t stop breathing in your sleep (that is, have an ‘apnea’). This is suitable for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). See also: Apnea; Sleep apnea; Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); APAP; VPAP
CSA (Central Sleep Apnea)
While some apneas are caused by a blockage (or obstruction) in your upper airway, central sleep apnea is when your breathing stops but your airway is actually open (not blocked). Even though the airway may be open, the automatic action of breathing stops because the communication between the brain and the body has been lost. See also: apnea; Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
This is a term used to describe how well you are following the recommended usage of your therapy. If you are compliant, it means you are using it as recommended to gain the benefits of treatment. If you are noncompliant, you are not using it as recommended to gain the benefits. Compliance is also sometimes linked to reimbursement.
Easy -Breathe technology
This is the name of ResMed’s smooth air delivery technology, which intelligently mimics your natural breathing pattern. It incorporates the Easy-Breathe motor, which reduces the sound of your device to a whisper, so your (and your partner’s) sleeping environment is quiet and restful.
EPR (Expiratory Pressure Relief)
EPR is a feature on ResMed’s sleep therapy devices that gently lowers the pressure delivered to you when you breathe out. This makes it easier to breathe out against the air pressure.
This is a term used to describe the occurrence of an apnea or hypopnea.
Refers to breathing out, either naturally (automatically) or mechanically (with the help of a therapy device or ventilator). Also referred to as Exhalation.
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS)
EDS is a condition where you constantly feel tired during the day, and generally lack energy, even though you might feel you have had enough sleep.
Generally, flow refers to the stream of air entering your lungs when you breathe (either naturally or with the help of a therapy device.)
This refers to any event that limits the flow of air into your body, due to a blockage (or obstruction) in your upper airway.
Full face masks
Full face masks are a type of mask used during positive airway pressure therapy. Full face masks cover both the nose and mouth. See also: Nasal pillow masks; Nasal masks.
During positive airway pressure therapy, humidification warms the air you’re breathing as it comes out of the device. This helps you avoid getting a dry nose or throat, keeps your airway moist (so that it doesn’t dry out), and helps you keep your mouth closed while you sleep. Using a humidifier can make a positive difference to your therapy comfort and experience. ResMed’s humidification technology is called Climate Control. See also: Climate Control
Hypopnea is a partial blockage of the airway. During a hypopnea, breathing is shallow at 50% less than baseline breathing, with partial upper airway obstruction lasting 10 seconds or longer.
Refers to breathing in, either spontaneously (automatically) or mechanically (with the help of a therapy device or ventilator). Also referred to as inspiration.
Refers to the pressure delivered to you during inspiration. See also: Inspiration; Pressure
Inspiration time (Ti)
Refers to the length of time (in seconds) you spend in inspiration (i.e how long it takes for air to flow into the lungs). See also: TiControl
Refers to where a tube is inserted down your throat to provide you with oxygen. See also: Invasive ventilation
Invasive ventilation; Invasive therapy
Refers to a method of ventilation that requires something to enter your body to help you breathe. This can be via intubation (where a tube is inserted down your throat), or a tracheotomy (where an incision is made into your throat). Non-invasive ventilation, on the other hand, does not require anything to enter your body to provide air. Instead air is delivered through a mask that you wear over your mouth and/or nose. See also: Tracheotomy; Intubation; Non-invasive ventilation
intelligent Volume-Assured Pressure Support (iVAPS)
iVAPS is a volume assurance therapy mode found in some of ResMed’s ventilators. To ensure you receive the right ‘volume’ of air needed for your therapy, iVAPS intelligently monitors whether air is flowing in or out of your lungs, the amount of air that’s flowing through and how much air you need for the next breath. See also: Volume
All ResMed masks are latex-free.
Leak; leaking; leaking air or bad leak
Leak refers to air escaping (or leaking out of) your mask due to issues such as you having the wrong mask size, the mask not being assembled or fitted correctly, or the mask is worn out and needs to be replaced.
The respiratory system is made up of all the organs in your body that help you breathe. The windpipe and lungs make up the lower airway. The lower airway is protected by the chest cavity, which also contains the heart. See also: Upper airway; Respiratory system
Refers to the volume of air breathed in (or out) within any 60-second period.
Refers to air escaping (or leaking out of) your mouth during positive airway pressure therapy. This happens when you breathe through your mouth rather than your nose, and your mouth is not covered by a therapy mask.
This is a mixture of both obstructive sleep apnea, where there is a blockage (or obstruction) in the upper airway; and central sleep apnea, where no effort is made to breathe. See also: Central sleep apnea (CSA); Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); Lower airway
Nasal masks are a type of therapy masks used during positive airway pressure therapy. Nasal masks cover only the nose. See also: Nasal pillow masks; Full face masks.
Nasal pillow masks
Nasal pillow masks are a type of mask used during positive airway pressure therapy. The nasal pillows rest at the entrance to the nose, gently sealing in the nostrils. These masks are minimalistic and less obtrusive than nasal or full face masks. See also: Nasal masks; Full face masks.
NMD (Neuromuscular disease)
Refers to a range of diseases and conditions that affect your muscles. This can be due to the nature of the muscles themselves or the nerves in the muscles.
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV)
NIV is a noninvasive way to deliver air to your system in an effort to help you breathe. In NIV, pressurized air is delivered from a small device that sits on your bedside table, to a mask that you wear over your face. It does not require any surgery or any equipment to enter your body. See also:Invasive ventilation
The sleep cycle is made up of two recurring sleep states: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions within our body. See also: REM
(NPPV) Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
Also known as Non-invasive ventilation. See also: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV)
OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea)
OSA is the most common type of SDB (sleep-disordered breathing). OSA is where an apnea or hypopnea occurs due to a complete or partial blockage (or obstruction) in the upper airway. See also: apnea; SDB; upper airway; hypopnea
An oximeter is a small sensor that clips onto your fingertip to calculate your pulse rate and oxygen saturation. It is usually used with a home sleep testing device like ResMed’s ApneaLink Plus. See also: Pulse rate; oxygen saturation
Refers to where oxygen is delivered to your airway via a tube to help you breathe.
Periodic breathing describes an unstable breathing pattern throughout the night. In periodic breathing, you will have periods during your breathing cycle where breathing is deep and then shallow, which can lead to having a central apnea (where you stop breathing for more than 10 seconds) even though your airway is not blocked. See also: Apnea; Central sleep apnea (CSA)
Therapy devices measure the force of air delivered to you in units of pressure (i.e. centimeters of water or cm H2O). For example, if your care provider prescribes a therapy pressure of 25 cm H2O, then that’s the force of air needed to keep your airway open to minimize or avoid apneas. See also: Therapy pressure
Refers to places in the mask where oxygen tubes and/or pressure lines can be directly connected to the mask, so that oxygen and pressure can be monitored.
Refers to the number of heart beats in a 60-minute time frame. Your pulse rate can be measured by an oximeter. See also: Oximeter
This is a test used to monitor sleep. The reading from a PSG can be used to assess the quality of your sleep and the likelihood of having a sleep disorder.
Refers to the sound made by therapy equipment—it’s the sound you hear in the room. See also: Conducted noise
Rainout refers to water droplets or moisture in your tubing or mask. If your bedroom gets too cold at night, the amount of water vapor that can be held by the air decreases, causing condensation—or rainout—in the tube. This can create issues during PAP therapy. Using a humidification solution like ResMed’s Climate Control can help minimize rainout. See also: Humidification; Climate Control
Designed to make therapy more comfortable, Ramp helps you ease into therapy each night. It’s where your PAP device is set to start at a lower pressure than prescribed and slowly ramps up to your full therapy pressure over a maximum of 45 minutes. This gives you time to fall asleep or get used to breathing with your equipment on before your pressure reaches the prescribed setting. See also: Therapy pressure
The sleep cycle is made up of two recurring sleep states: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions within our body. See also: Non-REM
The respiratory system is made up of all the organs in your body that help you breathe. It is made up of the upper and lower airways. See also: Upper airway; Lower airway
Refers to the frequency of breathing, measured as the number of breaths per minute
ResScan is the name of ResMed’s PC-based data management software. It’s the software that care providers, healthcare professionals and equipment suppliers might use to download your therapy information to assess your therapy progress.
SDB (Sleep-Disordered Breathing)
SDB is a term used to describe a group of conditions where a person has trouble breathing or stops breathing while they’re asleep. Also referred to generally as “sleep apnea.” See also: Sleep apnea
Seal (or good seal)
Your mask needs to seal well on your face for you to get the full benefit of therapy. A good seal means that the air pressure being delivered to you is distributed evenly and comfortably and is not leaking out from your mask. You will know it’s a good seal because your mask will feel firm but not tight on your face and around the headgear. If you hear or feel any air escaping from your mask (i.e. ‘leaking’) your mask is not sealing well. (Check that you have the right mask type for your face, the right mask size, and that your mask is fitted correctly.)
Settling time; Ramp
This is the general name given to a group of conditions where you stop breathing while you’re asleep. Sleep apnea is also sometimes called sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). See also: SDB
A snore index is recorded and reported during a sleep study. It’s based on the strength of the pressure waves that your snoring makes during the study
Your therapy pressure is prescribed by your care provider or sleep physician. It is measured in centimeters of water (or H2O). The setting prescribed determines the force of air being delivered to you through your therapy device. For example, if your care provider prescribes a therapy pressure of 25 cm H2O, then that’s the force of air needed to keep your airway open to minimize or avoid apneas. See also: Pressure
This is the name of a unique feature of ResMed’s VPAP™ bilevel devices. TiControl™ allows your care provider to set minimum and maximum inspiratory time limits to accommodate your individual respiratory needs. See also: Inspiration time (Ti)
Refers to the volume of air that you breathe in and out in one breath, when you are in a resting (not active) state.
This is a surgical procedure, where an incision (cut) is made into your throat to make way for a tube to be placed into your throat to deliver air directly into your system.
The nose, throat and larynx make up the upper airway. See also: Lower airway; Respiratory system
Usage is the length of time recorded on your device that shows how long you have used and received therapy from your device. This can be used when assessing your compliance to therapy. See also: Compliance
Refers to the process of getting air into and out of the lungs. This is done either spontaneously, that is, through the automatic action of breathing, or mechanically, with the help of a ventilator. Using a ventilator, air enters your lungs—either non-invasively (via a mask worn over your mouth and/or nose) or invasively (via a tracheotomy)—before being expelled (or gotten rid of). See also: Invasive ventilation; Non-invasive ventilation; Tracheotomy
VPAP is the name of ResMed’s bilevel technology, which delivers therapy pressures at two different levels. See also: Bilevel; Therapy pressure
Volume refers to the amount of air delivered to you in units of millilitres (mL) or liters (L).